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    Author Topic: Legion Medical Officers and Medics Guide  (Read 4006 times)
    JKALER48
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    « on: January 14, 2010, 03:57:19 PM »

    A project Editor and contributers are needed!

    This guide should include:

    How to portray a Legion Medical officer and perform simulated ancient medical procedures and treatments.

    How to perform safe and effective actual ancient medical treatments for minor injuries and illnesses.

    How to discreetly perform modern emergency medical treatment in a reenactment venue.

    How to plan for and conduct emergency first aid and evacuation at events.

    Ancient medical equipment, drugs, ointments and procedures.

    How to make /where to get reproduction/simulated ancient medical gear.

    Field Sanitation

    Food Safety Inspection

    Veterinary Services
    « Last Edit: January 16, 2010, 07:27:55 PM by JKALER48 » Logged

    paul silva
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    « Reply #1 on: January 14, 2010, 06:00:29 PM »

    I would also include a Roman medic. In my research they are called capsarii because of the capsa (round box) in which they carried their bandages. I have also seen them listed as miltus immunes. I have read the following books, and would recommend them as sources. All the books can be found at Amazon.com. Some are a little pricey,but worth the cost.

    HIPPOCRATIC WRITINGS
    THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO GALEN
    ROMAN MEDICINE BY AUDREY CRUSE
    ASCLEPIUS THE GOD OF MEDICINE BY GERALD D HART MD
    THE TREATMENT OF WAR WOUNDS IN GRAECO-ROMAN ANTIQUITY BY CHRISTINE F. SALAZAR

    Paul Silva
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    JKALER48
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    « Reply #2 on: January 14, 2010, 06:08:23 PM »

    I would also include a Roman medic. In my research they are called capsarii because of the capsa (round box) in which they carried their bandages. I have also seen them listed as miltus immunes. I have read the following books, and would recommend them as sources. All the books can be found at Amazon.com. Some are a little pricey,but worth the cost.

    HIPPOCRATIC WRITINGS
    THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO GALEN
    ROMAN MEDICINE BY AUDREY CRUSE
    ASCLEPIUS THE GOD OF MEDICINE BY GERALD D HART MD
    THE TREATMENT OF WAR WOUNDS IN GRAECO-ROMAN ANTIQUITY BY CHRISTINE F. SALAZAR

    Paul Silva
    Good Idea Medic added!
    You can volunteer to work on/be the editor for this if you are interested!
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    paul silva
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    « Reply #3 on: January 15, 2010, 11:16:05 AM »

    The only site I have found that is reproducing medical instruments is www.frisius-f.de. The site is in German, but anyone can search the site and find what you are looking for. They are pricey and will only accept bank transfers so you are looking for at least a extra price of $40.oo for the transfer. I have not order anything yet, but hope to.
     

    I have been picking some up some pieces off of e-bay. The prices are not bad. The pieces I have I will put in a display tray for living history events.

    Paul Silva
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    JKALER48
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    « Reply #4 on: July 21, 2011, 12:19:42 PM »

    Roman-era shipwreck reveals ancient medical secrets
    A first-aid kit found on a 2,000-year-old shipwreck has provided a remarkable insight into the medicines concocted by ancient physicians to cure sailors of dysentery and other ailments.
    The aquarium recreated in the museum
    The aquarium recreated in the museum, where several vials and containers, (still sealed), are preserved Photo: EMANUELA APPETITI

    By Nick Squires in Rome

    9:34PM BST 09 Jul 2011

    A wooden chest discovered on board the vessel contained pills made of ground-up vegetables, herbs and plants such as celery, onions, carrots, cabbage, alfalfa and chestnuts – all ingredients referred to in classical medical texts.

    The tablets, which were so well sealed that they miraculously survived being under water for more than two millennia, also contain extracts of parsley, nasturtium, radish, yarrow and hibiscus.

    They were found in 136 tin-lined wooden vials on a 50ft-long trading ship which was wrecked around 130 BC off the coast of Tuscany. Scientists believe they would have been used to treat gastrointestinal complaints suffered by sailors such as dysentery and diarrhoea.

    "It's a spectacular find. They were very well sealed," Dr Alain Touwaide, from the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Washington DC, told The Sunday Telegraph. "The plants and vegetables were probably crushed with a mortar and pestle – we could still see the fibres in the tablets. They also contained clay, which even today is used to treat gastrointestinal problems."

    The pills are the oldest known archaeological remains of ancient pharmaceuticals. They would have been taken with a mouthful of wine or water, or may have been dissolved and smeared on the skin to treat inflammation and cuts.
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    Historians believe the presence of the medicine chest suggests that the ship may have had a doctor on board, or at least someone trained in rudimentary first aid. The chest also contained spatulas, suction cups and a mortar and pestle.

    The vessel was transporting amphorae of wine, glassware, ceramics and oil lamps when it sank in 60ft of water between the Italian mainland and the island of Elbe.

    "We still don't know whether it was Roman, Greek or Phoenician, nor do we know whether it was a long distance trading ship operating throughout the Mediterranean or a coastal vessel," said Dr Touwaide.

    He said the discovery showed that medical knowledge contained in ancient Greek texts, and later in the writings of Roman scholars such as Pliny, was being put into practise in the Roman Empire.

    The ship was discovered off the port of Piombino in 1974 and the wooden medicine box was found in 1989, but it is only now that scientists have been able to use DNA sequencing technology to analyse the contents of the pills.

    The analysis was carried out in conjunction with Italian researchers from the Superintendence for Cultural Heritage in Tuscany.

    Gino Fornaciari, a paleo-pathologist from Pisa University, said: "As well as understanding how the ancient Romans treated each other, we are learning more about what illnesses they suffered from."

    The Romans derived much of their medical knowledge from the ancient Greeks and doctors used a range of sophisticated instruments. Excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum, the two towns destroyed by Mt Vesuvius in AD79, have found surgical knives, hooks and tweezers as well as bronze rectal speculums, used to conduct examinations, and forceps for delivering babies.
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    JKALER48
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    « Reply #5 on: July 03, 2013, 12:12:47 AM »

    Military medical corps
    Republican

    The state of the military medical corps before Augustus is unclear. Corpsmen certainly existed at least for the administration of first aid and were enlisted soldiers rather than civilians. The commander of the legion was held responsible for removing the wounded from the field and insuring that they got sufficient care and time to recover. He could quarter troops in private domiciles if he thought necessary. Authors who have written of Roman military activities before Augustus, such as Livy, mention that wounded troops retired to population centers to recover.
    Imperial

    The army of the early empire was sharply and qualitatively different. Augustus defined a permanent professional army by setting the enlistment at 16 years (with an additional 4 for reserve obligations), and establishing a special military fund, the aerarium militare, imposing a 5% inheritance tax and 1% auction sales tax to pay for it. From it came bonus payments to retiring soldiers amounting to several years’ salary. It could also have been used to guarantee regular pay. Previously legions had to rely on booty.

    If military careers were now possible, so were careers for military specialists, such as medici. Under Augustus for the first time occupational names of officers and functions began to appear in inscriptions. The valetudinaria, or military versions of the aesculapia (the names mean the same thing) became features of permanent camps. Caches of surgical instruments have been found in some of them. From this indirect evidence it is possible to conclude to the formation of an otherwise unknown permanent medical corps.

    In the early empire one finds milites medici who were immunes (“exempt”) from other duties. Some were staff of the hospital, which Pseudo-Hyginus mentions[15] as being set apart from other buildings so that the patients can rest. The hospital administrator was an optio valetudinarii. The orderlies aren’t generally mentioned, but they must have existed, as the patients needed care and the doctors had more important duties. Perhaps they were servile or civilians, not worth mentioning. There were some noscomi, male nurses not in the army. Or, they could have been the milites medici. The latter term might be any military medic or it might be orderlies detailed from the legion. There were also medici castrorum. Not enough information survives in the sources to say for certain what distinctions existed, if any.

    The army of Augustus featured a standardized officer corps, described by Vegetius. Among them were the Ordinarii, the officers of an Ordo or rank. In an acies triplex there were three such ordines, the centuries (companies) of which were commanded by centurions. The Ordinarii were therefore of the rank of a centurion but did not necessarily command one if they were staff.

    The term medici ordinarii in the inscriptions must refer to the lowest ranking military physicians. No doctor was in any sense “ordinary”. They were to be feared and respected, just as they are today. During his reign, Augustus finally conferred the dignitas equestris, or social rank of knight, on all physicians, public or private. They were then full citizens (in case there were any Hellenic questions) and could wear the rings of knights. In the army there was at least one other rank of physician, the medicus duplicarius, “medic at double pay”, and, as the legion had milites sesquiplicarii, "soldiers at 1.5 pay", perhaps the medics had that pay grade as well.

    Augustan posts were named according to a formula containing the name of the rank and the unit commanded in the genitive case; e.g., the commander of a legion, who was a legate; that is, an officer appointed by the emperor, was the legatus legionis, “the legate of the legion.” Those posts worked pretty much as today; a man on his way up the cursus honorum (“ladder of offices”, roughly) would command a legion for a certain term and then move on.

    The posts of medicus legionis and a medicus cohortis were most likely to be commanders of the medici of the legion and its cohorts. They were all under the praetor or camp commander, who might be the legatus but more often was under the legatus himself. There was, then, a medical corps associated with each camp. The cavalry alae (“wings”) and the larger ships all had their medical officers, the medici alarum and the medici triremis respectively.
    Practice

    As far as can be determined, the medical corps in battle worked as follows. Trajan's Column depicts medics on the battlefield bandaging soldiers. They were located just behind the standards; i.e., near the field headquarters. This must have been a field aid station, not necessarily the first, as the soldiers or corpsmen among the soldiers would have administered first aid before carrying their wounded comrades to the station. Some soldiers were designated to ride along the line on a horse picking up the wounded. They were paid by the number of men they rescued. Bandaging was performed by capsarii, who carried bandages (fascia) in their capsae, or bags.

    From the aid station the wounded went by horse-drawn ambulance to other locations, ultimately to the camp hospitals in the area. There they were seen by the medici vulnerarii, or surgeons, the main type of military doctor. They were given a bed in the hospital if they needed it and one was available. The larger hospitals could administer 400-500 beds. If these were insufficient the camp commander probably utilized civilian facilities in the region or quartered them in the vici, “villages”, as in the republic.

    A base hospital was quadrangular with barracks-like wards surrounding a central courtyard. On the outside of the quadrangle were private rooms for the patients. Although unacquainted with bacteria, Roman medical doctors knew about contagion and did their best to prevent it. Rooms were isolated, running water carried the waste away, and the drinking and washing water was tapped up the slope from the latrines.

    Within the hospital were operating rooms, kitchens, baths, a dispensary, latrines, a mortuary and herb gardens, as doctors relied heavily on herbs for drugs. The medici could treat any wound received in battle, as long as the patient was alive. They operated or otherwise treated with scalpels, hooks, levers, drills, probes, forceps, catheters and arrow-extractors on patients anesthetized with morphine (opium poppy extract) and scopolamine (henbane extract). Instruments were boiled before use. Wounds were washed in vinegar and stitched. Broken bones were placed in traction. There is, however, evidence of wider concerns. A vaginal speculum suggests gynecology was practiced, and an anal speculum implies knowledge that the size and condition of internal organs accessible through the orifices was an indication of health. They could extract eye cataracts with a special needle. Operating room amphitheaters indicate that medical education was ongoing. Many have proposed that the knowledge and practices of the medici were not exceeded until the 20th century CE.
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    JKALER48
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    « Reply #6 on: July 26, 2013, 06:48:46 PM »

    Veterinarians:
    The description ueterinarius (or medicus ueterinarius, for which see CIL 5.2183, 6.37194) is found elsewhere of veterinarians serving with the army: see CIL 3.11215, 6.37194, cf. IGRR I.1373, Digest 50.6.7. On the veterinary service in the Roman army, see Davies (1989), 209-36 esp. 212, 214. ueterinarius was not, however, an exclusively military term (cf. Columella 6.8.1, 7.5.14, 11.1.12); see Adams (1992b). A military ueterinarius will have dealt largely with the equine animals, see Dixon and Southern (1992), 23-9.
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